Meteorological Conditions’ Impact on Air Quality and Compact Weather Sensor’ Role

The relationship between Meteorological Conditions and Air Quality.

With the continuous improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to life quality. This also leads to increasing concerns for the surrounding environment, air quality, weather conditions, and climate change. Why? Because the significant changes in meteorological factors will have an impact on people’s health. In the case of no significant change in the emissions of pollution sources, meteorological conditions such as temperature, wind, and precipitation will directly affect the air quality, thus have an impact on people’s lives. In this blog, I will elaborate on some critical meteorological elements that affect air quality, hence people’s lives.

Temperature‘s Impact on Air Pollution

The temperature cannot reflect air quality, but the change of air temperature vertically has a significant impact on air quality. Inversion can directly affect the diffusion of atmospheric pollutants. Generally speaking, the temperature decreases with the increase of height, and the average temperature decreases about 0.6℃ for every 100 meters. Thus, the lower part of the atmosphere(close to the ground) is hotter and the air is denser. In order to maintain the balance, the air in the lower layer moves upward, which will move the pollutants and dust upward. This will reduce the pollution degree in the lower atmosphere. When the inversion occurs, the atmosphere is relatively stable. While the slow airflow cannot spread upward, it functions as an aggravation to air pollution. The inversion layer is strong and thick in winter and lasts for a long time while summer is relatively weak and thin.


Barometric Pressure’s Impact on Air quality

During the same season of the year, pollution is more prone to occur when the barometric pressure is low. When the atmospheric pressure is relatively high, there is a downdraft above the city. At the same time, the air flows from the outskirt areas to the city center, which diffuses the air pollution in the city. This is contrary to urban heat-island circulation. When the strengths of these two circulations are similar or if the urban heat-island circulation is stronger, it will lead to more severe pollution on the ground layer of the city. This situation normally exists in winter when the urban heat-island effect is strong. In winter, the air pressure is normally low, there is an air draft in the city, and the airflows from the suburban areas bring pollutants with them into the city center, hence stronger pollution.


Wind‘s Relation to Air quality

Wind velocity is positively correlated with air quality. Usually, strong winds help conduce to the dilution and diffusion of air pollutants. However, a long period of breeze or calm wind will suppress the spread of pollutants, double the pollution near the ground. During the dry seasons in spring/winter, the soil moisture level is low, the high wind speed stirs dust on the ground and brings particles into the air, leading to severe weather conditions such as sand storms.

Wind direction is also an important factor affecting air quality. When the city is located in the downwind of enterprises that output heavy pollutants, the city’s air quality are more easily polluted. With wind direction data, it’s helpful to trace the source of pollution.

Precipitation’s Relation to Air Quality

Natural rainfall and snowfall can remove and scour air pollutants, leading to better air quality. Under the influence of rain and snow, some pollution gases in the atmosphere can be dissolved, reducing the concentration of air pollutants. Larger rain and snow also play an effective in the removal of air pollutants and dust particles. At the same time, precipitation is often accompanied by cold air transit with a strong wind and no dust, which is conducive to the diffusion of pollutants in the air. In a word, precipitation is an air freshener. (Source: China Meteorological News)

As one of the important factors affecting air quality, meteorological conditions affect the dilution, diffusion, transportation, and transformation of air pollutants, which ultimately affect air quality. When the pollution source is relatively stable, the change of meteorological conditions has a significant impact on pollutant concentration.

Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China published “the technical specifications for operation and quality control of ambient air quality automated monitoring system for particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)” in September 2018 and “2021 National Ecological Environment Monitoring Program” in April 2021. All these documents specify that these five meteorological parameters(temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind direction, wind speed) are essential for air quality monitoring.

Recommendation for latest version Sensor

In the past, the five meteorological parameters were mainly monitored by a collection of separate sensors, such as mechanical wind speed and wind direction sensors, which were relatively low in price. However, a variety of problems occurred in this process, including extra costs and manpower in installation and maintenance, inaccuracy due to broken parts, etc.

In view of the increasing demands for high precision meteorological monitoring, ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensors are adopted. Ultrasonic sensors do not have mechanical moving parts, making them less prone to damages. As a result, they can work in all weather conditions, maintenance-free, for a long time. The five-in-one meteorological sensor (ultrasonic wind speed and direction) can help save labor costs in installation and maintenance, adding value to the whole project in the long run, thus making them more widely applied in many scenarios.

SenseCAP ONE S500 monitors air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure wind speed, and wind direction. This all-in-one, IP66 rated industrial compact weather sensor features accuracy, robustness, easy installation, and maintenance-free. It is a great fit for monitoring meteorological parameters in many application scenarios, including environmental monitoring, remote weather stations, smart city, smart agriculture, solar factory, and beyond.

SenseCAP ONE S500 supports the following protocols: MODBUS RS485, RS232, RS422, and SDI-12. You can use it with your data logger who supports the above interfaces. Here you can refer to the detailed user guide. Meanwhile, we also provide SenseCAP Sensor Hub 4G Data Logger, to be used with SenseCAP ONE 500 without any extra provisioning, just plug and play. You can see the data on the cloud within minutes. Click the links to purchase SenseCAP ONE S500 and Sensor Hub now to collect the environmental data! Should you have any inquiries, do not hesitate to drop us a line at [email protected]!

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1 thought on “Meteorological Conditions’ Impact on Air Quality and Compact Weather Sensor’ Role

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August 2021
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